In A Brief History of Time, Stephen Hawking tries to answer few fundamental questions that non-scientists have about the universe. For example, how did it originate, how will it end, how is it controlled, and is it finite or infinite? To correspond how modern scientists answer these questions, Hawking uses two fundamental theories: general relativity and quantum mechanics. General relativity is Albert Einstein’s theory, concerning innovative ideas of space, time, matter, and gravity that enabled him and others to intensify their perceptive of the large-scale formation of the universe. Quantum mechanics, developed by the German physicist Werner Heisenberg and others, enabled scientists to understand mystifying phenomena at the subatomic level. Like all theories, relativity and quantum mechanics are provisional. They are not even dependable with each other.
From Big Bang to Black Holes
Nevertheless, they outmoded the model of matter and the universe that had been formulated by Sir Isaac Newton. Hawking points out that expansion of universe is evident in the behavior of light, as it travels great distances from stars in other galaxies to Earth. Based on the idea that black holes do not mechanically absorb everything that comes near them but may hold light trapped at their very edges, Hawking began a new line of thinking about their behavior. He found that light forms an event horizon at the edge of a black hole, trapping the light in its gravitational field, from which it does not escape. However, radiation emitted from a black hole indicates that its gravity is not as absolute as previously thought. The final chapter of A Brief History of Time brings collectively the wide range of speculations people have had on the nature of being, where life comes from, and where it is all heading in the future.